Macron met for an hour with his predecessor, Socialist Francois Hollance, prior to being sworn in. The pair met in the president's office to discuss issues of national security, including the country's nuclear codes.
During his inauguration speech, Macron said, "we will take all our responsibilities to provide, every time it's needed, a relevant response to big contemporary crises."
He cited "the excesses of capitalism in the world" and climate change among his future challenges.
Following the ceremony and military honors at the Elysee palace, Macron is slated to visit the Tomb of the Unknown soldier, at the Arc de Triomphe at the top of the Champs-Elysees Avenue, a tradition followed by France's newly-sworn-in leaders.
Macron will also meet with Paris mayor Anne Hidalgo Sunday afternoon.
The pro-business, pro-EU leader already has a busy week ahead: He will travel to Germany on Monday to meet with Chancellor Angela Merkel, and he will have to name a prime minister and form a government.
Prior to being sworn-in, Macron posted a series of tweets that echoed his campaign mantra.
"The world and Europe today, more than ever, need France," read one tweet in French.
"I will see to it that our country is experiencing a renewal of democratic vitality," read another tweet. "Citizens will have a voice. They will be listened to."
He also tweeted, "The mandate entrusted to me by the French gives them the right to an absolute, total demand."
Macron demonstrated his of-the-people sensibility Sunday, wearing a dark suit from French brand Jonas and Cie that cost less than $500, his office told The Associated Press. His wife Brigitte Macron, meanwhile, wore a lavender blue dress by Nicolas Ghesquiere for Louis Vuitton.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.